Sun Cancer Hospital is one the most Trusted Gynaec Cancer Hospital in Mumbai Borivali Kandivali Malad Goregaon Dahisar Jogeshwari Mira Road Bhayendar Andheri Vasai Virar Mumbai Thane Ghatkopar Vikhroli Mulund. Various types of Gynaec cancer are Ovarian Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Endometrial Cancer among others.
Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) that develops in a woman's ovaries. (Ovaries are the reproductive organs that hold a woman's eggs.) Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women. It most often occurs in women in their 50s.
When found in its earliest stages, ovarian cancer can be cured 90 to 95 percent of the time. Unfortunately, early ovarian cancer is hard to detect and there are no good screening tools. Many cases of ovarian cancer are found after the cancer has spread to other organs. In these cases, the cancer is much more difficult to treat and cure.
The cause of ovarian cancer is not yet known. You have an increased risk of ovarian cancer if you have:
- An early menopause
- A family history of ovarian cancer
- No pregnancie
Women who have had children or who use oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are less likely to develop ovarian cancer
In its early stages, ovarian cancer has few symptoms. The first sign of ovarian cancer is usually an enlarged ovary. The ovaries are located deep within the pelvic cavity, so swelling may go unnoticed until later stages. Symptoms of more advanced ovarian cancer include:
- Swollen abdomen/Bloating (caused by build-up of fluids produced by the tumor)
- Lower abdominal and leg pain
- Sudden weight loss or gain
- Change in bowel or bladder function
- Swelling in the legs
A number of tests are used to diagnose ovarian cancer. These tests are usually done after a health care provider feels an enlarged ovary during a pelvic exam. At this point, the woman may need :
- Blood tests - Blood tests look for a substance called CA-125. High levels of CA-125 in the blood can be a sign of cancer. However, CA-125 levels can be normal, even when cancer is present and elevated in many non-cancerous conditions. For this reason, blood tests are not used to screen for ovarian cancer.
- Pelvic ultrasound - Ultrasound is used to get an electronic image of the ovaries. This image may show an enlarged ovary. Sometimes, the ultrasound will show growths that are not cancer. For this reason, other tests may also be ordered.
- Laparoscopy - When there's good reason to suspect ovarian cancer, a type of surgery called laparoscopy may be performed. A thin viewing tube (laparoscope) is placed through a small cut (incision) made in the abdomen. Using the scope as a guide, the surgeon takes a sample of fluid and tissue from the growth. These samples are then tested for cancer.
- Laparotomy - In this procedure, the doctor opens the abdomen using a larger cut and looks at the ovaries. If cancer is detected, one or both ovaries and as much tumor as possible will be removed.
Cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix, begins on the surface of the cervix. There are two main types of cancer of the cervix - squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. About 80% to 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, while 10%-20% are adenocarcinomas.
In many cases, cervical cancer can be linked with known risk factors for the disease. Some risk factors can be avoided, while others cannot. Some risk factors include :
- An irregular screening history - Women who have not regularly had a Pap test (smear) are at increased risk of cervical cancer.
- HPV Infection — Some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are transmitted sexually and can infect the cervix. Cervical infection with HPV is the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only a very small percentage of women infected with untreated HPV will develop cervical cancer.
- Sexual History — Females who begin having sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and females who have had many sexual partners are at a higher risk of HPV infection and developing cervical cancer. The prevention of sexually transmitted diseases reduces the risk of cervical cancer.
- Smoking — Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer.
- HIV Infection — Women who have been infected with HIV have a higher-than-average risk of developing cervical cancer
Symptoms of Cervical Cancer
The most common symptom is vaginal bleeding (following intercourse or between menses) and vaginal discharge. However, precancerous changes of the cervix (abnormal pap smears, dysplasia, precancer) usually do not cause pain or any symptoms. Therefore, it is very important that all women be screened by a pelvic exam and a Pap test since precancerous changes are usually asymptomatic.
- Pap Smear
- Endocervical Curettage
- CT SCAN
Endometrial cancer, or cancer of the endometrium, is a cancer that develops in the inner lining of the uterus (womb). This lining is called the endometrium. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissue.
The exact cause of endometrial cancer is not known, but certain risk factors are linked to the disease. Most of the known risk factors are linked to the balance between the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Some risk factors include :
- Obesity (being very overweight).
- History of not being able to become pregnant or having never given birth
- Use of tamoxifen - This drug, which is used to treat women with breast cancer, acts like estrogen in the uterus and can increase the risk of endometrial cancer.
- Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) - This therapy, involving the use of female hormone estrogen to offset the effects of menopause, can increase endometrial cancer risk if progesterone is not used to protect against precancerous changes in the endometrium.
- Ovarian diseases
- Age - As females get older, the likelihood of endometrial cancer increases. Most endometrial cancers occur in women age 50 or older.
- Early menstruation
- Late menopause
- Total length of menstruation span - The span of menstruation might be a more important factor than the age at which periods started or ended.
- Family history
- Earlier pelvic radiation therapy
The following symptoms might occur with endometrial cancer or other conditions :
- Vaginal bleeding between normal periods in pre-menopausal women
- Vaginal bleeding or spotting in post-menopausal women, even a small amount
- Lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramping
- Thin white or clear discharge in post-menopausal women
- Extremely long, heavy or frequent vaginal bleeding episodes in women over 40
- Endometrial biopsy
- Transvaginal ultrasound or sonography
- Dilation and curettage (D & C)
- Testing of endometrial tissue
- CT or CAT scan
- CA-125 assay
- HORMONAL THERAPY