Sun Cancer Hospital is one the most trusted Lung Cancer Hospital in Mumbai Borivali Kandivali Malad Goregaon Dahisar Jogeshwari Mira Road Bhayendar Andheri Vasai Virar Mumbai Thane Ghatkopar Vikhroli Mulund.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in india and worldwide.
in india it constitutes 11.3 % of all cancers in males which is second only to head neck cancers causing highest number of deaths due to cancers in males. in women 3.1% of all cancers and third highest after breast and cervical cancer with highest number of death due to cancer in woman as well.
In Mumbai it is leading cause of cancer in males and fifth most common cancer in women.
Worldwide leading cause of cancer in male and leading cause of all cancer deaths ,in women third highest cause of cancer and second leading cause of cancer.
Today we see rising trend of lung cancer in young age due to early onset of smoking habit .also rise in number of cases in women due to increase in habit of smoking.
Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol composed of gaseous and particulate compounds. The smoke consists of mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke components. Mainstream smoke is produced by inhalation of air through the cigarette and is the primary source of smoke exposure for the smoker. Sidestream smoke is produced from smoldering of the cigarette between puffs and is the major source of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The primary determinant of tobacco addiction is nicotine, and tar is the total particulate matter of cigarette smoke after nicotine and water have been removed. Exposure to tar seems to be a major component of lung cancer risk. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has identified at least 50 carcinogens in tobacco smoke.smokers are at risk 10 to 30 times more then non smokers.
Lung cancers in non smokers : about 20 % of lung cancers are found in people who have never smoked Causes for such association could be exposure to second hand smoke, radon environment pollution, occupational exposure, previous lung diseases, genetic.
Air pollution has become a worldwide problem given the current staggering rate of globalization and industrialization. The effects of low levels of air pollution exposure over a longer period of time are harder to measure, especially the long-term and accumulative effects on lung cancer risks. Air pollution is worsening in developing countries; the highest concentrations of suspected particulates, sulfur dioxide, and smoke have been recorded in large cities of these countries.
A case-control study in Sweden by Nyberg and colleagues224 showed a relative risk for lung cancer of 1.44 for persons exposed to more than 29.3 µg/m3 of nitric oxide (as a measure of traffic air pollutant) over 21 to 30 years compared with exposures to lower than 12.8 µg/m3 of nitric oxide. Sulfur oxide another traffic air pollutant tends to increase rate of lung cancer to exposed as compared to non exposed
A very important pollutant ,viz diseal exhaust from diseal vehicles is believed to cause lung cancer.
Diesel exhaust composed of a complex mixture of gases and fine particles represents an important component of air pollution. Some of these gaseous components, such as benzene, formaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene, are suspected of causing or known to cause cancer in humans.
Two large meta analysis ,provided strong support that occupational exposures to diesel exhaust, especially in persons in the trucking industry, is associated with an approximately 30% to 50% increase in the relative risk for lung cancer. Data linking gasoline engine exhaust and lung cancer are less compelling.
Diesel engines have been widely used for decades in various industrial sectors such as underground mining, construction, public transportation, ship loading in docks, agriculture, operation of machines and firefighting. Diesel exhaust (DE) emissions are composed of gases and a particulate phase containing thousands of chemicals.
In June 2012, a working group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of DE in humans.
There is a genetic component to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, whether it relates to host susceptibility to lung cancer, with or without exposure to cigarette smoke to the development of certain types of lung cancer, or to an individual’s responsiveness to biologic therapies.
Exposure to asbestos and radon in workers in asbestos factory and mining is related to increased incidence of lung cancer
Chronic lung diseases like COPD, tuberculosis increase the susceptibility of host to lung cancer
TYPES OF LUNG CANCER
Small cell and squamous cell lung cancer are realted to smoking and have relatively poorer prognosis then adenocarcinoma which is common in non smokers and young patients
Lung Cancer Symtoms and Signs
Persistent cough with or without blood in cough must be evaluated for any pathology in lung
Significant weight loss
Repeated pleural effusion without any apparent cause
Lung Cancer Treatment
Lung cancers detected at very early stage like adenocarcinoma are treated with surgery, rest are treated with chemotherapy and radiation depending on stage
Lung Cancer Prevention
To quit smoking is first and foremost step to prevent lung cancers .to decrese environmental pollution by decreasing diesel emission through various legislation and laws is one of the most important and actively debated topic worldwide.